by
David T. Koyzis
  

for the use of students in POL 265,
Russian Government and Politics,
at Redeemer University College

The entire territory was formerly titled the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Most of its republics are members in some fashion of the Commonwealth of Independent States, whose function remains vague and whose internal ties have diminished in significance since its formation in 1991. It has been compared with the pre-1992 European Community, albeit without the long range goal of further integration. It can be defined as a loose association of eleven of the former Soviet republics, with its seat at Minsk, Belarus. Co-ordinating institutions include: a Council of the Heads of States, Council of the Heads of Governments, Inter-Parliamentary Assembly, Economic Court, Council of Foreign Ministers, Council of Defence Ministers, Economic Council, Executive Committee, Council of Commanders-in-Chief of Frontier Troops, Council of Collective Security, Interstate Bank, and Interstate Statistical Committee. Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia have remained outside the Commonwealth from the start. Georgia intially remained outside but later joined, only to withdraw again in 2008.  Azerbaijan has been in and out and then in again.  Turkmenistan left in 2005, but remains an associate member. The individual states themselves have widely differing forms of government, ranging from parliamentary democracy in the Baltic states to corrupt dictatorial governments in parts of Central Asia.

Area: 22,402,200 sq. km. (8,649,489 sq. miles). The Soviet Union was by far the largest country in the world. With its collapse, the Russian Federation now holds that title.

Population:  289,265,000 (1990 estimate); 286,359,589 (2005 estimate). (Note the drop in population.) Some 38% of the total population and 62% of the urban population inhabit cities of over 100,000. The rural population accounts for 38% of the total. In 1979 the urban population numbered 62% of the total. Figures include the Baltic states.

Economy: Although at the beginning of the 20th century Russia was a largely agricultural country, the Soviet Union later became one of the foremost industrial powers in the world. Its vast territory is rich in natural resources, including oil, coal, hydro-electric power, minerals (e.g., manganese, potassium salts, phosphates, copper, lead, &c.), forests and agricultural products. Unlike most western industrialized nations, however, the Soviet Union historically de-emphasized production of consumer goods in favour of those industries enhancing national power (e.g., defence, aerospace, nuclear power, etc.). Although the Soviet Union should have been feeding itself and then some, agriculture was neglected relative to heavy industry. During the Soviet period, the economy was subject to centralized planning, which hampered economic development. Gorbachev's perestroika (restructuring) was most unsuccessful in the economic realm.


CIA

Major cities (cities are in Russia unless otherwise stated):

  • Moscow - 8,972,300 (1989); 11,273,400 (2004); 10,470,318 (2008)
  • St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad) - 4,778,900 (1998); 4,661,219 (2002 Census) ; 4,568,047 (2008)
  • Kiev, Ukraine - 2,646,100 (1993);  2,765,531 (2009)
  • Tashkent, Uzbekistan - 2,094,000 (1990) 
  • Baku, Azerbaijan - 1,149,000 (1990); 1,900,000 (2003) ; 1,145,000 (2007)
  • Kharkiv (Kharkov), Ukraine - 1,615,000 (1993 estimate);  1,400,000 (2005 estimate); 1,455,964 (2009) 
  • Minsk, Belarus - 1,687,400 (1993 estimate); 1,829,100 (2009)
  • Nizhny Novgorod (formerly Gorky) - 1,334,249 (2003) ; 1,274,708 (2008)
  • Novosibirsk - 1,390,513 (2008)
  • Yekaterinburg (formerly Sverdlovsk) - 1,367,000 (1990);  1,333,000 (2002); 1,322,954 (2008)
  • Samara (formerly Kuybyshev) - 1,135,422 (2008)
  • Odesa, Ukraine - 1,086,700 (1993 estimate); 1,012,500 (2004); 1,008,627 (2009)

 
 

 INDEPENDENT STATES FORMERLY PART OF THE USSR

RUSSIAN FEDERATION (present name adopted 26 December 1991) or RUSSIA (alternative name adopted 17 April 1992); formerly Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic; also known as the Russian Republic)

Capital: Moscow
Area: 17,075,400 sq. km. (6,592,800 sq. miles)
Population: 147,500,000 (1998 estimate); 141,377,752 (July 2007 est.); 140,041,247 (July 2009 est.) Note decline of more than 7 million, due to emigration and a below-replacement birth rate. Birth rate: 11.1 births/1,000 population (2009 est.). Death rate: 16.06 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.).
Per capita GNP:  $12,200 (2006 est.)
Established: 1922; independent federal republic: 1991
Ethnic composition: 82% Russians, 4% Tatars, 3% Ukrainians, 1% Chuvash (c 1990); 79.8% Russian, 3.8% Tatar, 2% Ukrainian, 1.2% Bashkir, 1.1% Chuvash, 12.1% other or unspecified (2002 census). Note that ethnic Russians have declined as a proportion of their own country, due to the negative birth rate and emigration.

Republics within the Russian Federation

Most were formerly known as autonomous soviet socialist republics (ASSR), now an obsolete designation.  As of early 1992 all of these had unilaterally upgraded their status to that of full republic.

Republic of Tatarstan (Tataria)

Capital: Kazan
Area: 68,000 sq. km. (26,250 sq. miles)
Population (2002): 3,779,265; 3,762,809 (2008)
Established as autonomous soviet socialist republic (ASSR): 1920
Ethnic composition: 49% Tatars, 43% Russians, others. There are some 7 million Tatars in the Soviet Union, but less than 2 million live in their namesake republic. The Tatars were the sixth largest ethnic group in the former Soviet Union and are now the second largest in the Russian Federation. Tatarstan's principal resource is oil.

Republic of Bashkortostan (Bashkiria)

Capital: Ufa
Area: 143,600 sq. km. (55,450 sq. miles)
Population (2005 est.): 4,110,000; 4,052,731 (2008)
Established as ASSR: 1919
Ethnic composition: 39% Russians, 28% Tatars, 22% Bashkirs, Chuvash, Mari, Ukrainians, Mordvins.  The Bashkirs are now a minority within their own republic and are even outnumbered by the Tatars.  The Bashkirs and Tatars speak closely related Turkic (Altaic) languages.

Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

Capital: Yakutsk
Area:3,103,200 sq. km. (1,198,150 sq. miles)
Population (2002 est.): 949,280; 951,436 (2008)
Established as ASSR: 1922
Ethnic composition: 50% Russians, 37% (or 33%) Yakuts, Evenki, Even.  The Yakuts speak a Turkic (Altaic) language. Sakha is a huge, sparsely populated territory in northeastern Siberia rich in minerals, especially diamonds.

Republic of Karelia

Capital: Petrozavodsk
Area: 172,400 sq. km. (66,550 sq. miles)
Population (2002): 716,281; 690,653 (2008)
Established: 1923 as ASSR; 1940 promoted to full union republic status; 1956 demoted again to ASSR; 1991 unilaterally upgraded itself to full republic. Had Stalin been successful in annexing Finland in 1939-40, that country would probably have been incorporated into this republic.
Ethnic composition: 70% (or 74%) Russians, 10% Karelians, Belorussians, Ukrainians, Finns. The Karelians speak a dialect of Finnish and are now vastly outnumbered by Russians and other ethnic groups.

Chechen Republic (Chechnya)

Capital: Grozny
Area: 19,300 sq. km. (7,450 sq. miles)
Population (1983 est.): 1,193,000; 1,080,000 (2002 census); 1,209,040 (2008)
Established as ASSR in 1936; dissolved during second World War; re-established in 1957.
Ethnic composition: 58% Chechens (Caucasian), 23% Russians, 13% Ingush (Caucasian).  (The Encyclopedia Britannica places the breakdown at 35% Russians and 60% for the Chechens and Ingush.) A coup d'état in the republic in October 1991 by former Soviet General Djokhar Dudayev culminated in a declaration of independence from the Russian Federation. The border between the Chechen and Ingush republics has not been definitively drawn. Russia has fought two wars to enforce Moscow's sovereignty over the republic, with great destruction resulting.

Republic of Dagestan

Capital: Makhachkala
Area: 50,300 sq. km.
Population: 2,186,000 (1996);  est. 2,576,531 (2002) ; 2,687,822 (2008)
One of the north Caucasus republics, it is extremely ethnically diverse, the largest group being the Avars at 28%, and also including the Dargin, Kumyk, the Lezgin and scores of smaller groups. Russians make up some 9% of the population. After enjoying a reputation for peace and stability, Dagestan burst into the news in 1999 when guerrilla forces with Chechen connections began fighting for a withdrawal of Russian forces and for independence. The Dagestani peoples are largely muslim.

Other republics and their ethnic composition — names in parentheses and brackets indicate linguistic classifications of the titular ethnic group(s).

  • Republic of Adygeya: 68% Russians, 22% Adygei (Caucasian)
  • Republic of Buryatia: 70% Russians, 24% Buryats (Mongolian [Altaic])
  • Chuvash Republic (Republic of Chavash): 68% Chuvash (Turkic [Altaic]), 27% Russians
  • Republic of Altai: 60% Russians, 31% Altai (Turkic [Altaic])
  • Kabardino-Balkar Republic: 48% Kabardins (Caucasian), 32% Russians, 9% Balkars (Turkic [Altaic])
  • Republic of Kalmykia (Khalmg Tangch): 45% Kalmyks (Mongolian [Altaic]), 38% Russians
  • Karachai-Cherkess SSR: 42% Russians, 31% Karachai (Turkic [Altaic]), 10% Circassians (Caucasian)
  • Republic of Khakasiya: 79% Russians, 11% Khakassians (Turkic [Altaic])
  • Republic of Komi: 58% Russians, 23% Komi (Finnic [Finno-Ugric (Uralic)])
  • Republic of Marii-El: 47% Russians, 43% Mari (Finnic [Finno-Ugric (Uralic)])
  • Mordovian SSR: 61% Russians, 32% Mordvins (Finnic [Finno-Ugric (Uralic)]) 
  • North Ossetian SSR: 53% Ossetians (Iranian), 30% Russians 
  • Republic of Tuva: 64% Tuvans (Turkic [Altaic]), 32% Russians 
  • Udmurt Republic: 59% Russians, 31% Udmurts (Finnic [Finno-Ugric (Uralic)])

The Krasnoyarsk Kray (Territory), which includes the Evenki and the Taymyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Districts, unilaterally upgraded its own status to republic in February 1992. The Kaliningrad district (oblast), which is now isolated from Russia proper by the Baltic states and Belarus, at one point had similar intentions. Prior to 1945 Kaliningrad (Königsberg) was the northern part of the former German province of East Prussia. The former Volga Germans, who were deported by Stalin in 1941 to Central Asia and Siberia, were at one point agitating for the restoration of their homeland on the Volga River. Yeltsin at one point indicated tentative approval, but never moved in this direction due to opposition of ethnic Russians living in the region of the former republic. Many ethnic Germans have since migrated to the Federal Republic of Germany.
 

UKRAINE

Capital: Kiev
Area: 603,700 sq. km. (233,100 sq. miles)
Population: 50,500,000 (1998 estimate);  46,299,862 (July 2007 est.); 45,700,395 (July 2009 est.) Note decline of nearly 5 million people!
Per capita GDP:  $7,800 (2006 est.); $6,900 (2008)
Independent 1918-1922; established as soviet socialist republic (SSR) 1922; regained independ ence December 1991.
Ethnic composition: 73% Ukrainians, 22% Russians, 1% Belorussians, 1% Jews (c 1990); 77.8% Ukrainian, 17.3% Russian, 0.6% Belarusian, 0.5% Crimean Tatar, 0.2% Jewish (2001 census). In the immediate aftermath of the Soviet Union's breakup, Ukraine and Russia disputed the status of Crimea, which had been transferred from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954.

REPUBLIC OF BELARUS (Byelorussia, Belorussia)

Capital: Minsk
Area: 207,600 sq. km. (80,100 sq. miles)
Population: 10,141,000 (1998 estimate);   9,724,723 (July 2007 est.); 9,648,533 (July 2009 est.), decline.
Per capita GDP:  $8,100 (2006 est.)
Established as SSR 1922; gained independence December 1991
Ethnic composition: 78% Belorussians, 13% Russians, 4% Poles, 3% Ukrainians (c 1990); 81.2% Belarusian, 11.4% Russian, 3.9% Polish, 2.4% Ukrainian, 1.1% other (1999 census). Belarus is the least nationalistic of the three Slavic states and became independent almost by default.  Its political system has been little affected by democratic currents. President Lukashenka has assumed autocratic powers, though by ostensibly plebiscitary means, and he is seeking a political union with Russia. Belarus is now known as the last dictatorship in Europe.


REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
(Moldavia)

Capital: Chisinau (Kishinev)
Area: 33,700 sq. km. (13,000 sq. miles)
Population: 4,335,000 (1996 estimate);  4,320,490 (July 2007 est.); 4,320,748 (July 2009 est.), slight decline.
Per capita GDP:  $2,000 (2006 est.), represents a decline from 1989.
Once an integral part of Romania and known as Bessarabia; annexed as SSR 1940; gained independence December 1991
Ethnic composition: 64% Moldovans (Romanians), 14% Ukrainians, 13% Russians, 4% Gagauzi, 2% Bulgarians (1989). Some Moldovans would like to see a reunification with Romania, but the current government seems to be content with independence. Moldova is in a state of virtual civil war with the breakaway "Trans-Dniester Soviet Socialist Republic," which is largely made up of Russians and Ukrainians and is the only part of the republic not to have belonged to Romania prior to 1940. Tiraspol is the principal city of this region.


REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA

Capital: Vilnius
Area: 65,200 sq. km. (25,200 sq. miles)
Population: 3,715,000 (1997);  3,575,439 (July 2007 est.); 3,555,179 (July 2009 est.), decline.
Per capita GDP:  $15,300 (2006 est.)
Independent 1918-1940; annexed as SSR 1940; regained independence September 1991
Ethnic composition: 80% Lithuanians, 9% Russians, 7% Poles, 2% Belorussians (c 1990); 83.4% Lithuanian, 6.7% Polish, 6.3% Russian, 3.6% other or unspecified (2001 census). Lithuania was the first of the former Soviet republics to declare independence on 11 March 1990. It bore the brunt of an attempted crackdown in January 1991. Lithuania is more ethnically homogeneous than the other two Baltic states. Lithuania is predominantly Roman Catholic and has long historic ties with neighbouring Poland.


REPUBLIC OF LATVIA

Capital: Riga
Area: 63,700 sq. km. (25,600 sq. miles)
Population: 2,479,870 (1997);  2,259,810 (July 2007 est.); 2,231,503 (July 2009 est.), decline.
Per capita GDP:  $16,000 (2006 est.)
Independent 1918-1940; annexed as SSR 1940; regained independence September 1991
Ethnic composition: 52% Latvians, 34% Russians, 5% Belorussians, 3% Ukrainians (c 1990); 57.7% Latvian, 29.6% Russian, 4.1% Belarusian, 2.7% Ukrainian, 2.5% Polish, 1.4% Lithuanian, 2% other (2002). Latvian and Lithuanian are the sole remaining members of the Baltic linguistic family. (A third, Old Prussian, is extinct.) At the dissolution of the Soviet Union ethnic Latvians formed only a bare majority within their own country, but their proportion has increased in the ensuing years.


REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA

Capital: Tallinn
Area: 45,100 sq. km. (17,400 sq. miles)
Population: 1,530,000 (1997 UN estimate);  1,315,912 (July 2007 est.); 1,299,371 (July 2009 est.), decline.
Per capita GDP:  $20,300 (2006 est.)
Independent 1918-1940; annexed as SSR 1940; regained independence September 1991
Ethnic composition: 62% Estonians, 30% Russians, 3% Ukrainians, 2% Belorussians (c 1990); 67.9% Estonian, 25.6% Russian, 2.1% Ukrainian, 1.3% Belarusian, 0.9% Finn, 2.2% other (2000 census). Estonians speak a language closely related to Finnish and distantly related to Hungarian.


REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA

Capital: Tbilisi
Area: 69,700 sq. km. (27,000 sq. miles)
Population: 5,401,000 (1998 estimate);  4,646,003 (July 2007 est.); 4,615,807 (July 2009 est.), decline.
Per capita GDP:  $3,800 (2006 est.), decline from 1989.
Established as SSR 1936; independent December 1991
Ethnic composition: 70% Georgians, 8% Armenians, 6% Russians, 6% Azerbaijani (c 1990); 83.8% Georgian, 6.5% Azeri, 5.7% Armenian, 1.5% Russian, 2.5% other (2002 census). Georgia has been in a state of civil unrest since before independence. Within weeks of gaining formal sovereignty, the country was divided between forces loyal to ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia (who had been freely elected prior to independence but was felt by many to be too authoritarian) and those opposed to him. In the north of the country the South Ossetians are clamouring to secede from Georgia and to join their ethnic compatriots in North Ossetia, which is part of the Russian Federation. This, along with the western region of Abkhasia, was the flashpoint between Georgia and Russia in 2008. Georgia is one of the more fiercely independent of the former Soviet republics, declining initially to belong to the CIS (which it quit again in 2008) and even to the Conference (now Organization) on Security and Co-operation in Europe.


REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

Capital: Yerevan
Area: 29,800 sq. km. (11,500 sq. miles)
Population: 3,762,000 (1994 UN estimate);   2,971,650 (July 2007 est.); 2,967,004 (July 2009 est.), decline.
Per capita GDP:  $5,700 (2006 est.)
Established as SSR 1936; independent December 1991
Ethnic composition: 93% Armenians, 3% Azerbaijani, 2% Kurds, 2% Russians (c 1990); 97.9% Armenian, 1.3% Yezidi (Kurd), 0.5% Russian, 0.3% other (2001 census). Armenia claims to be the first christian nation, having converted around AD 300. Its church, the Armenian Apostolic Church refused to assent to the decisions of an early ecumenical council and thus is not in communion with either the Eastern Orthodox or Roman Catholic Churches. Historic Armenia was much larger than it is today, and its population was subject to two massacres at the hands of the Turks, in the mid-1890s and again in 1915. The current Turkish government refuses to admit any culpability. Aremenia is in effective control of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of neighbouring Azerbaijan, which has an ethnic Armenian majority.


REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN

Capital: Baku
Area: 86,600 sq. km. (33,400 sq. miles)
Population: 7,499,000 (1996 estimate);  8,120,247 (July 2007 est.); 8,238,672 (July 2009 est.), growth.
Per capita GDP:  $7,500 (2006 est.), growth.
Established as SSR 1936; independent December 1991
Ethnic composition: 83% Azerbaijani, 6% Russians, 6% Armenians (c 1990); 90.6% Azeri, 2.2% Dagestani, 1.8% Russian, 1.5% Armenian, 3.9% other (1999 census). Armenia and Azerbaijan are currently in dispute over Nagorno-Karabakh, an ethnic Armenian enclave in Azerbaijan. Although a ceasefire has been in effect between the two countries since 1994, the dispute awaits a more definitive settlement.


REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

Capital: Astana (before 1998: Almaty  or Alma-Ata)
Area: 2,717,300 sq. km. (1,049,100 sq. miles)
Population: 15,671,000 (1998 estimate); 15,284,929 (July 2007 est.); 15,399,437 (July 2009 est.), decline followed by growth.
Per capita GDP: (1989):  $9,400 (2006 est.), growth.
Established as SSR 1936; independent December 1991
Ethnic composition: 40% Kazakhs, 38% Russians, 6% Germans, 5% Ukrainians (c 1990); 53.4% Kazakh (Qazaq), 30% Russian, 3.7% Ukrainian, 2.5% Uzbek, 2.4% German, 1.7% Tatar, 1.4% Uygur, 4.9% other (1999 census). At one time ethnic Russians outnumbered Kazakhs, but the latter's higher birthrate, coupled with Russian emigration, has given Kazakhs a definite edge in recent decades.


REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

Capital: Tashkent
Area: 447,400 sq. km. (172,800 sq. miles)
Population: 21,206,800 (1998 estimate);   27,780,059 (July 2007 est.); 27,606,007 (July 2009 est.), note growth by more than 6 million people, followed by slight decline.
Per capita GDP:  $2,000 (2006 est.), decline.
Established as SSR 1925; independent December 1991
Ethnic composition: 71% Uzbeks, 8% Russians, 5% Tajiks, 4% Kazakhs (c 1990); 80% Uzbek, 5.5% Russian, 5% Tajik, 3% Kazakh, 2.5% Karakalpak, 1.5% Tatar, 2.5% other (1996 est.). Uzbekistan contains the fabled cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Tashkent, which were important outposts along the Silk Road.


REPUBLIC OF TURKMENISTAN

Capital: Ashgabat
Area: 488,100 sq. km. (188,500 sq. miles)
Population: 3,808,900 (1998 estimate);   5,097,028 (July 2007 est.); 4,884,887 (July 2009 est.), growth, followed by decline.
Per capita GDP:  $8,500 (2006 est.), growth.
Established as SSR 1925; independent December 1991
Ethnic composition: 72% Turkmen, 10% Russians, 9% Uzbeks, 3% Kazakhs, 1% Ukrainians (c 1990); 85% Turkmen, 5% Uzbek, 4% Russian, 6% other (2003). Turkmenistan's politics has changed little since the Soviet era, with President Saparmurad Niyazov exercising dictatorial powers.


REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN

Capital: Dushanbe
Area: 143,100 sq. km. (55,300 sq. miles)
Population: 5,513,400 (1998); 7,076,598 (July 2007 est.); 7,349,145 (July 2009 est.), growth.
Per capita GDP:  $1,300 (2006 est.), decline.
Established as SSR 1929; independent December 1991
Ethnic composition: 62% Tajiks, 24% Uzbeks, 8% Russians, 1% Tatars, 1% Kirghiz, 1% Ukrainians (c 1990); 79.9% Tajik, 15.3% Uzbek, 1.1% Russian, 1.1% Kyrgyz, 2.6% other (2000 census).  The Tajiks speak an Iranian language related to Farsi.  The republic was plagued from the outset by civil war between communist and islamic oriented forces.  A tense ceasefire has been in place since 1997.  Ethnic Tajiks are also to be found in neighbouring Afghanistan.  Tajikistan is economically and militarily dependent on Russia.


REPUBLIC OF KYRGYZSTAN
(Kirghizia)

Capital: Bishkek (formerly Frunze)
Area: 198,500 sq. km. (76,600 sq. miles)
Population: 4,500,000 (1998 estimate); 5,284,149 (July 2007 est.); 5,431,747 (July 2009 est.), growth.
Per capita GDP:  $2,100 (2006 est.), decline.
Established as SSR 1936; independent December 1991
Ethnic composition: 52% Kirghiz, 22% Russians, 13% Uzbeks, 3% Ukrainians, 2% Germans (c 1990); 64.9% Kyrgyz, 13.8% Uzbek, 12.5% Russian, 1.1% Dungan, 1% Ukrainian, 1% Uygur, 5.7% other (1999 census).  The Kyrgyz speak a Turkic language.
 

POPULATIONS OF THE MAJOR ETHNIC GROUPS JUST PRIOR TO BREAKUP OF SOVIET UNION (1989, except where otherwise designated):

  • Russians  145,071,550
  • Ukrainians  44,135,989
  • Uzbeks  16,686,240
  • Belorussians  10,030,441 
  • Kazakhs  8,137,878 
  • Tatars  6,317,468 (1979, including Volga and Crimean Tatars) 
  • Azerbaijanis  6,791,106 
  • Armenians  4,627,227 
  • Tajiks  4,216,693 
  • Georgians  3,983,115 
  • Moldavians  3,355,240 
  • Lithuanians  3,068,296 
  • Turkmen  2,718,297 
  • Kirghiz  2,530,998 
  • Germans  1,936,214 (1979) 
  • Jews  1,810,876 (1979) 
  • Chuvash  1,751,366 (1979) 
  • Peoples of Dagestan  1,656,676 (1979) 
  • Latvians  1,459,156 
  • Bashkirs  1,371,452 (1979) 
  • Mordvins  1,191,765 (1979) 
  • Poles  1,150,991 (1979) 
  • Estonians  1,027,255

 

Sources:  Diuk & Karatnycky, The Hidden Nations; Encyclopaedia Britannica (1987); Nahaylo & Swoboda, Soviet Disunion; Roy Macridis, ed., Modern Political Systems: Europe (6th ed., 1987); Time, 9 September 1991; Banks, Political Handbook of the World, 1990; Robin Milner-Gulland & Nikolai Dejevsky, Cultural Atlas of Russia and the Soviet Union, The Economist, 14 March 1992; RFE/RL Research Report, 12 June 1992, Whitaker's Almanac, 1999, Bremmer & Taras, New States, New Politics: Building the Post-Soviet Nations (1997), <http://www.caspian.net/daginfo.html>, 13 August 1999; Central Intelligence Agency, Interstate Statistical Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States, citypopulation.de.